The serial output of the Laureate duty cycle transmitter tracks ON or OFF period as a percentage from 0% to 100% of total period of repetitive pulse trains. In the illustration, duty cycle is 100 x t/P. The transmitter determines duty cycle by averaging an integral number of periods over a gate time, which is selectable from 10 ms to 199.99 s. The same signal is applied to Channels A and B. The meter divides the average pulse width by the period between pulses and expresses this ratio in percent. A resolution of 1%, 0.1% or 0.01% is selectable. By selecting leading or falling pulse edges, the ON or OFF duty cycle can be transmitted.
Duty cycle measurement is used to monitor modulated proportional control systems and pulse-modulated systems, such as radar, lasers or packet radio. For long periods, duty cycle can be measured by using the A and B channels of the Laureate dual-channel counter to totalize AC line cycles and having the counter display the ratio of the two totals scaled to percent.
The dual-channel signal conditioner used for pulse detection accepts inputs from proximity switches with PNP or NPN output, TTL or CMOS logic, magnetic pickups, contact closures, and other signals from 12 mV to 250 Vac. Jumper selections provide optimum operation for different sensor types and noise conditions. A built-in 5V, 10V or 15V dc excitation supply can power proximity switches and other sensors, and eliminate the need for an external power supply.
Laureate TM Series transmitters send data as a serial digital signal. RS485 or RS232 signal levels are jumper selectable and can each be associated with either the Modbus protocol or Laurel’s simpler Custom ASCII protocol.
Modbus protocol operation is fully compliant with the Modbus Over Serial Line Specification V1.0 (2002) for 2-wire, half-duplex connection. This includes RTU or ASCII modes, addressing of up to 32 devices per RS485 line without a repeater, and up to 247 digital addresses. Modbus operation allows devices by different manufacturers to be connected in parallel and be addressed using the same protocol.Laurel’s Laurel ASCII protocol allows up to 31 Laureate devices to be addressed on the same RS485 data line. It is simpler than the Modbus protocol and is recommended when all devices are Laureates. It also allows use of Laurel’s datalogging software.
Transmitter programming is via the unit's three-terminal serial port using Laurel's PC-based Instrument Setup Software. This software can be downloaded from this website at no charge. The required transmitter-to-PC interface cable is available from Laurel (P/N CBL03). Laurel's serial output transmitters and meters can also be part of PC-based data logging systems using Laurel's Datalogging Software, which operates under the Laurel ASCII Protocol. A single software command switches between the Modbus and Laurel ASCII Protocols.
Options include dual solid state relays for local alarm or control and an isolated 4-20 mA or 10V (selectable) analog output, effectively providing a linearized analog transmitter output that tracks the reading that would be transmitted digitally. The analog output provides 12-bit (4096 step) resolution of the output span and is ultra-linear to within one bit. Its accuracy is ±0.05% of span for all signal types, except for AC rms, where accuracy is ±0.1%. Output isolation from signal and power grounds is provided by a separate on-board power supply, which can drive 20 mA into a 500 ohm load for 10V compliance. Output isolation eliminates problems caused by ground loops.
Laureate transmitters are housed in a 35 mm DIN rail case that is only 22.5 mm (0.89") thick. Signal connections are via detachable screw clamp plug connectors.
|Types||AC, pulses from NPN, PNP transistors, contact closures, magnetic pickups.|
|Signal Ground||Common ground for channels A & B.|
|Minimum Signal||Nine ranges from (-12 to +12 mV) to (+1.25 to +2.1V).|
|Maximum Signal||250 Vac|
|Maximum Frequency||1 MHz, 30 kHz, 250 Hz (selectable).|
|Contact Debounce||0, 3, 50 ms (selectable).|
|Duty Cycle Mode|
|Item Displayed||ON or OFF duty cycle of periodic pulse waveshape|
|Display Units||1%, 0.1%, 0.01%|
|Frequency Range||0.005 Hz to 50 kHz|
|Input Accuracy||0.01%, 0.005 Hz to 500 Hz, 0.1% at 5 kHz, 1% at 50 kHz|
|Maximum Timing Interval||199.99 s|
|Conversion Interval||Gate time + 30 ms + 0-2 signal periods|
|Gate Time||Selectable 10 ms to 199.99 s|
|Time Before Zero Output||Selectable 10 ms to 199.99 s|
|Serial I/O (standard)|
|Signal levels||RS485 (default) or RS232 (jumper selectable)|
|Data Rates||300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 baud|
|Output Isolation||250V rms working, 2.3 kV rms per 1 min test.|
|Serial Protocols||Modbus RTU, Modbus ASCII, Laurel ASCII (selectable)|
|Devices on RS-485 Line||32 max without a repeater.|
|Modbus Addresses||247 max|
|Modbus Modes||RTU or ASCII, 2-wire.|
|Modbus Compliance||Modbus over Serial Line Specification V1.0 (2002).|
|Transducer Excitation Output (standard)|
|Jumper Selection 1||10V @ 60 mA, isolated to 50V from signal ground|
|Jumper Selection 2||5V @ 50 mA, isolated to 50V from signal ground|
|Jumper Selection 3||15V @ 60 mA, non-isolated|
|Dual Relay Output(optional)|
|Relay Type||Two solid state relays, SPST, normally open, Form A|
|Load rating||120 mA at 130 Vac or 170 Vdc, 28 ohms series resistance.|
|Analog Output (optional)|
|Output Levels||0-20 mA, 4-20 mA or 0-10 Vdc (selectable)|
|Compliance, 4-20 mA||10V ( 0-500 ohm load )|
|Compliance, 0-10V||2 mA ( 5 kOhm load )|
|Output Resolution||12 bits (4,096 steps)|
|Output Accuracy||±0.05% of output span|
|Output Isolation||250V rms working, 2.3 kV rms per 1 minute test|
|Standard power||95-240V AC ±10% or 90-300V DC|
|Low power option||12-30V AC or 10-48V DC|
|Frequency||DC or 47-63 Hz|
|Power Isolation||250V rms working, 2.3 kV rms per 1 min test.|
|Case Dimensions||120 x 101 x 22.5 mm|
|Case Mounting||35 mm rail per DIN EN 50022|
|Electrical Connections||Detachable screw clamp plug connectors|
|Operating Temperature||0°C to 70°C|
|Storage Temperature||-40°C to 85°C|
|Relative Humidity||95% at 40°C, non-condensing|
|Duty Cycle and Elapsed Time of a Laser|
|Duty cycle can be used to indicate the ON time of a pulsed laser in relation to total time. Laureate counters and transmitters can also measure elapsed time, the number of pulses, average width in µs, the number of pulses, and total energy applied.|
Laureate Serial Output Transmitters
Pulse Input for Frequency, Rate or Period
(shown with optional analog output and dual relay output)
|Transmitter Powering a Single Sensor|
|Transmitter Powering Two Sensors||Transmitter with Active or Passive Sensors|